Rufopolys spelplan (bilden är beskuren)

Spelet om den stadsnära landsbygden

ARTIKEL   Den stadsnära landsbygden är en outnyttjad potential i arbetet för en hållbar utveckling. En riktad planering, men också en fördjupad dialog mellan olika aktörer, behövs för att utnyttja dess möjligheter. Vid Birmingham City University har spelet Rufopoly utvecklats för att öka förståelsen för den komplexitet som kännetecknar stadsranden, och för att möjliggöra en dialog bortom tidigare låsta positioner. Artikeln introducerar spelet och det Leader-projekt som kommer att pröva Rufopolys användbarhet i Sverige under 2014.

Den stadsnära landsbygden påverkas av stadens närhet, på gott och ont. Hotet om nya byggnadsprojekt som tar jordbruks- eller skogsmark i anspråk är ständigt närvarande. Med ökade krav på ekosystemtjänster och mångfunktionella lösningar i en hållbar stad finns det risk att konflikterna om marken i stadsranden ökar, även om en nollvision för bostadshus på åkermark skulle genomföras. Samtidigt medför stadens närhet värdefulla inkomstkällor för lantbrukets aktörer. För att nå ett långsiktigt hållbart markanvändande och företagande i den stadsnära landsbygden krävs därför en medveten planering, där samspelet mellan stad och land tas tillvara. I dag är situationen snarast den motsatta: områden i stadens närhet faller mellan stolarna inom planeringen, då de varken omfattas av de senaste årens vurm för stadsutveckling, men inte heller passar in i de satsningar som görs för landsbygdsutveckling. Svårigheten att satsa på ekologisk odling i stadens närhet är ett exempel: det krävs långsiktiga investeringar för att bli certifierad, och med tanke på den osäkerhet om framtiden som alltid råder i stadsranden är det därför få som vågar sig på en sådan omställning.

Vad skulle krävas för att den stadsnära landsbygden istället skulle kunna erbjuda kreativa, hållbara möten mellan stad och land, där till exempel nya idéer för mångfunktionalitet prövades och där nya innovativa företag uppstod tack vare närheten mellan stadsbor och landsbrukare? Dessa frågor ställdes nyligen inom ett engelskt, tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt, Managing Environmental Change at the rural-urban Fringe, som menade att den stadsnära landsbygden (rural-urban fringe) borde betraktas som en ”opportunity space”, en outnyttjad potential för hållbar utveckling. Projektet lyfte fram behovet av ett långsiktigt perspektiv (50 – 100 år), att lära sig från historien, och att undvika universallösningar: utvecklingen måste vara platsanpassad. För att nå dessa mål krävs, bland annat, en nära dialog mellan lantbrukets aktörer, planerare och politiker. Dialogen behövs för att reda ut missförstånd, ta del av varandras perspektiv, och få nya idéer eller nya bekantskaper som kan leda till projekt där mötet mellan stad och land tas tillvara. Men hur kan man nå en generell dialog om planeringen av det stadsnära landskapet, som leder bortom låsta positioner och ingrodda konflikter? En sådan dialog behöver också föras, med politiker, markägare, och andra aktörer, för att nå en strategisk plan för hur stadsranden ska tas tillvara. Det är här som spelet Rufopoly kan vara till hjälp.

Kanske är det mer korrekt att kalla Rufopoly för ett dialogverktyg än ett spel. Rufopoly utvecklades av Alister Scott och hans team vid Birmingham City University i nära samarbete med bland annat Farmers’ Union, för att underlätta dialogen om den stadsnära landsbygden och dess markanvändningskonflikter. ”Ruf” står för ”rural – urban fringe” (stadsranden), medan namnet i övrigt travesterar på Monopoly (Monopol). Men det går inte att vinna i detta spel, och det handlar inte heller om pengar. Spelplanen visar ”Rufshire”, en påhittad region med en storstad, förorter, stadsnära bebyggelse, jordbruksområden och naturreservat. Den anonyma regionen är en viktig poäng: spelplanen öppnar upp för en mer generell diskussion om stadsnära landskap än om den egna hembygden hade stått i centrum. Tärningen avgör var i Rufshire spelaren hamnar, och där kommer han/hon att ställas inför en konkret planeringsproblematik kopplat till stadsexpansion och planering. Spelaren kan välja att antingen besvara frågan som sig själv, eller ta en annan roll (som t ex som kommunpolitiker, hästgårdsägare eller miljökämpe). Spelaren skriver ner svaren och en motivering för sig själv, men diskussioner med medspelarna kan behövas för att formulera ett svar. Frågorna betonar nämligen den komplexitet som planeringen kännetecknas av: det finns inte ett rätt svar och varje lösning leder till att något offras. Spelets avslutande fråga sätter spelarens egna svar i en vidare kontext (spelaren förväntas presentera en framtidsvision baserat endast på tidigare gjorda val och motiveringar), vilket också ger möjligheter för en allmän diskussion med medspelarna om Rufshires framtid.

Rufopolys spelplan, där spelaren med tärningens hjälp vandrar från planeringsdilemman i staden till förorten, för att avsluta på landsbygden. Även om frågorna berör den ruta spelaren står på, fångar de det oundvikliga beroendet mellan stad och land.

Rufopoly bör snarast betraktas som en lek än ett spel, eftersom spännings- och tävlingsmomentet saknas. Däremot öppnar det upp för rollspel, i möjligheten att pröva att ta någon annans perspektiv på konflikterna i stadsranden. Lekfullheten kan vara avväpnande, och bidra till en friare, mer kreativ, diskussion om den stadsnära landsbygdens framtid. Drygt två år efter att spelet prövades första gången pekar erfarenheterna från England på att spelet har förmåga att skapa engagemang och möjliggöra en aktiv dialog, bland planerare, politiker, lokalbefolkningen men också i lågstadieskolor som alla prövat på spelet.

Under 2014 kommer Leader-projektet Spelplan för hållbar utveckling att pröva Rufopoly som en plattform för dialoger om den stadsnära landsbygden. Projektet drivs av Malmö stad, med SLU, LRF, Kummingården och Krumby byalag som parter. Målsättningen är att under våren trimma in en svensk version av spelet, i samarbete med Rufopolys upphovsman, för att därefter pröva spelet i skarpt läge.

Sverige delar den problematik som fick Alister Scott med kollegor att utveckla Rufopoly: en skriande brist av forum för dialog mellan stadens och landsbygdens aktörer. Det finns därför goda skäl att även pröva en svensk version av spelet, men bara om vi samtidigt inser att det endast är första steget i en längre process: en kontinuerlig dialog, och utvecklandet av en stadsnära landsbygdsplanering.

 

Skriven av Mattias Qviström
2014-02-13 08:56
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Om författaren Mattias Qviström

Mattias Qviström är professor i Landskapsplanering, med inriktning mot landskapsteori, vid Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet i Alnarp. Hans pågående forskning handlar om peri-urbana landskap, stationsnära bebyggelsestrategier (transit-oriented development), 1900-talets landskaps- och planeringshistoria, och om motionslöpandets relation till landskapet.

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